Fungi are simple plants that lack the green pigment chlorophyll. They include mushrooms, moulds, yeasts and rusts. Some species are parasites in plants and animals and can cause fungal infections. Infections are not particularly dangerous, but can be unpleasant and embarrassing. Typical symptoms include reddening of the infected area, formation of blisters, feelings of itching and burning. Fungal infections develop quickly and need to be treated on time. The most common types of fungal infections are tinea, athlete’s foot and candida (yeast infection). Overweight or diabetic people, as well as people who work with water (e.g. dishwasher) are affected more often.
Clotrimazole (Bifonazole, Betamethasone) is an antifungal agent for topical use. It has a broad spectrum of action is applied for treatment of the majority of fungal pathogens of human diseases, including yeast fungi (genus Candida). Additionally has antibacterial effect. Clotrimazole is effective for treatment of a wide range of skin infections including infections of the mucous membranes caused by yeast fungi. The diseases that Clotrimazole is affectively applied to include fungal skin (feet) disease, pityriasis versicolor, erythrasma superficial candidiasis, caused by dermatophytes, yeasts, molds and other fungi and pathogens that are sensitive to Clotrimazole; mycoses complicated by secondary pyoderma. The drug’s contraindications include pregnancy (the first trimester) and individual intolerance of Clotrimazole. Clotrimazole, which is also known as Bifonazole and betamethasone, is an antifungal agent used majorly for the treatment of major fungal pathogens such as yeast fungi that are responsible for human diseases. In addition to that, it has antibacterial effect that makes it appropriate for the treatment of different skin infections like that of mucous membranes that are majorly caused by yeast fungi. Here are certain diseases for which Clotrimazole is used for treatment:
• Pityriasis versicolor
• Fungal skin diseases
• Mycoses complicated by secondary pyoderma
• Erythrasma superficial candidiasis –caused by dermatophytes, moulds, yeasts and other fungi pathogens. Continue reading...
Diflucan (generic name: fluconazole) is an antifungal drug used to treat the fungal infections like yeast infections of the vagina, throat, esophagus, lungs, mouth and other organs. It is also used to treat the meningitis caused by fungus. Diflucan (fluconazole) is also used to prevent the yeast infections in patients who are undergoing the treatment with the chemotherapy and radiotherapy before a bone marrow transplant as there is risk of yeast infections during this treatment. Diflucan (fluconazole) is used to prevent both the systemic as well as the superficial fungal infections. b>Mechanism of action Diflucan (fluconazole) inhibits the fungal cytochrome P450 enzyme 14α-demethylase. The demethylase enzyme which is present in the human body is less sensitive to the Diflucan (fluconazole) thus Diflucan (fluconazole) only inhibits the demethylase enzyme found in the fungus. The inhibition of fungal demethylase by Diflucan (fluconazole) ultimately leads to the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis from the lanosterol. As there is no ergosterol synthesis thus the fungal cytoplasmic membrane becomes weaken and the cellular permeability of fungus is increased and thus leakage of cellular components occurs which leads to the death of the fungus. (Borgers., et al 1980). Continue reading...
Fluconazole is used to prevent both the systemic as well as the superficial fungal infections. It is commonly marketed under the brand name Trican or Diflucan.
Mechanism of action
Like other imidazole- and triazole-class antifungals, fluconazole inhibits the fungal cytochrome P450 enzyme 14¦?-demethylase. Mammalian demethylase activity is much less sensitive to fluconazole than fungal demethylase. This inhibition prevents the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol, an essential component of the fungal cytoplasmic membrane, and subsequent accumulation of 14¦?-methyl sterols. Fluconazole is primarily fungistatic, however may be fungicidal against certain organisms in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, when fluconazole was in development at Pfizer it was decided early in the process to avoid producing any chiral centers in the drug so that subsequent synthesis and purification did not encounter difficulties with enantiomer separation and associated variations in biological effect. A number of related compounds were found to be extremely potent teratogens and subsequently discarded. Continue reading...
Lamisil is the first oral antimycotic of the allylamine class of antifungals. It possesses a broad spectrum of antifungal activity, with proven activity against dermatophytes, molds, and some yeasts and dimorphic fungi. Lamisil (Terbinafine) used to treat infections caused by fungus and affect the toenails and fingernails. Also, the lamisil oral granules are used in treating children under four years with fungal infections of scalp hair follicles and for the treatment of superficial fungal infections, particularly onychomycosis of the nails.
Fungal Infections: Onychomycosis
Fungal infections may be classified as systemic mycoses or superficial infections. The former is a more serious condition wherein the fungi invades the body and enters the general circulation, whereas the latter involves infection of the external structures such as the skin.
Nizoral having generic name Ketoconazole is an anti-fungal agent available in white tablets. It is basically used for the treatment of systemic fungal infections such as candidiasis, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, oral thrush, candiduria, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, chromomycosis, and paracoccidioidomycosis. It belongs to the class fluconazole. It is recommended not to use this drug for meningitis fungus as it penetrates poorly into cerebral spinal fluid. It is also use for the treatment of severe recalcitrant cutaneous dermatophyte infections. The recommended dosage of this medication is of 3.3 to 6.6 mg per kg. Minimum treatment duration is of 4 weeks. It is found that this drug may cause serious damage to liver.
Fungi (Kingdom Myceetae) are a group of organisms that are somewhat hard to describe. They are considered a group between groups, because of the sharing of characteristics between different organisms. For instance, some fungi are single- celled (like many bacteria are), while some are as large as plants. Some reproduce by fission (asexual reproduction), while others reproduce sexually. Continue reading...
Orungal (Itraconazole) also known as Sporanox is a drug used in the treatment of fungal infections, such as aspergillosis, blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, and fungal infection localized to the toenails and fingernails (onychomycosis).
Sporanox (Generic name: itraconazole) is a triazole antifungal drug. In the triazole group of antifungals other drugs are also included instead of itraconazole such as fluconazole, posaconazole, pramiconazole, isavuconazole, and voriconazole. Itraconazole was invented in 1984 and was first marketed under the brand name of sporanox. Sporanox oral solution is indicated for the treatment of oropharyngeal and esophageal candidiasis while the sporanox capsules are indicated for the treatment of different fungal infections in immunocompromised and non- immunocompromised patients including blastomycosis, histoplasmosis, and aspergillosis. Sporanox capsules are also indicated for the treatment of onychomycosis of toenail and fingernail in the non-immunocompromised patients. Mechanism of action It has been observed that the itraconazole inhibits the cytochrome P450-dependent synthesis of ergosterol, which is a vital component of fungal cell membrane. As there is no ergosterol synthesis thus the fungal cytoplasmic membrane becomes weak and the cellular permeability of fungus increases and thus leakage of cellular components occur which ultimately leads to the death of the fungus. Continue reading...
Voriconazole, sold as VFEND by Pfizer, is a triazole antifungal medication which is generally used to treat serious, invasive fungal infections. These infections are generally seen in patients who are immunocompromised and include invasive aspergillosis, invasive candidiasis, and certain emerging fungal infections.