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Osteoporosis

 

Osteoporosis is a disease which affects mostly women. Osteoporosis is a loss of bone tissue, resulting in bones that are brittle and liable to fractures. Infection, injury and synovitis can cause localized osteoporosis of adjacent bone. It can also result from prolonged steroid therapy. Depending on the extent of demineralization of the bone, it may be accompanied by pain, particularly of the lower back. The condition can be prevented in the menopause by administration of estrogen hormones, as well as other agents.

EFFICIENT OSTEOPOROSIS AND SKELETAL COMPLICATIONS TREATMENT – PAMIDRONATE

Background

Skeletal complications treatment - pamidronate Osteoporosis (bone softening) associated with osteoporotic fracture and bone loss affects approximately 75 million people, according to statistic in Europe, the United States and Japan (EFFO and NOF, 1997), incident cases statistic in women is 200 million and directly proportional to aging (1/5 in 70-year-old, 1/5 in 80 year-old and 1/3 in 90-year-old) (Kanis JA, 2007). These numbers rapidly increase annually leading to a speculation that osteoporosis incidence rate will be up to 310% in men and 240% in women by the year 2050 (Gullberg B et al., 1997).

Bone disease also includes Skeletal complications, the major manifestations of Multiple Myeloma (plasma cell cancer, resulting in bone destruction) which causes bone and joint pains, compression of spinal cord and mortality in serious case. Generally, these complications are set by bone’s osteoclastic resorption, an adverse process of bone formation and executed by osteoclast cells, which relate to many biological functions of bone metabolism. Skeletal complications treatment - pamidronate

Bone improvement

Belonging to the group of Bisphosphonates, Pamidronic acid accompanied with its derivative Pamidronate inhibits the activity of osteoclasts in destroying bone cells leading to the reduction of bone and skeletal decay. In addition, Pamidronate also impulses Osteogenesis, a process of bone formation associated with bone lengthening and/or reducing bone and joint pains. A double-blind research performed by Massachusetts Medical Society in 392 patients in stage III of Multiple Myeloma indicated that intravenous Pamidronate treatment (90 mg monthly) is efficient in degrading skeletal complications of Myeloma and improving life conditions (reducing bone pains) (James R. et al., 1996). In breast cancer patients, intravenous Pamidronate every 3-4 weeks has reported to be effective in managing the metastatic bone disease: breast cancer patients received 90mg Pamidronate intravenously showed a higher rate in bone retention (varied from 12-98%), compared with the placebo group (Serge CLM Cremers et al., 2005). Certain side effects may occur (variable manifestations to individuals) as Hypocalcaemia (the condition of low blood’s calcium concentration), Pyrexia (high body’s temperature) (41%) and rigors (usually in the first 24-hour use) (Gallagher SJ et al., 1989)

Children with Pamidronate

Pamidronate has been intensively researched to be an official treatment for children who have osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) due to its serious permanent consequences to those who receive no appropriate medication (bone health decline, fracture risk and calcium shortage) (Saggese G. et al, 2011). Certain promising results of Pamidronate as osteoporosis imperfecta treatment for children have been reported: 95 children suffering from osteogenesis imperfecta received Pamidronate (0.5 mg/kg/day for children under 2 years old and 1 mg/kg/day for the remains) showed decrease in pains and fracture incidence; bone mineral density (BMD) increase. Side effects appeared as Hypocalcaemia (1 in 95 children) (Véronique F. et al., 2005) and no consequences affecting to growth, blood’s chemical condition or fracture healing reported (Eva Å. et al., 2007). In sum, Pamidronate is considered to be safe and effective in children affected by Osteoporosis Imperfecta (including infants and adolescents), accompanied with other orthopedic surgery required in serious cases.

References

EFFO and NOF, Who are candidates for prevention and treatment for osteoporosis? Osteoporos Int 7:1., 1997
Eva Åström, Håkan Jorulf, Stefan Söderhäll, Intravenous pamidronate treatment of infants with severe osteogenesis imperfecta, Archives of Disease in Childhood, 2007; 92:332-33,Volume 92, Issue 4.
Gallagher, SJ, Ralston SH, Patel U and Boyle IT, Side-effects of Pamidronate, Lancet., Vol. 2, no. 853, pp. 42-43. 1989.
Gullberg B, Johnell O, Kanis JA, World-wide projections for hip fracture. Osteoporos Int 7:407., 1997
Kanis JA, WHO Technical Report, University of Sheffield, UK: 66., 2007
Saggese, G., Baroncelli, G.I, Bertelloni, S., Osteoporosis in Children and Adolescents: Diagnosis, Risk Factors and Prevention, Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism. July 2011, Volume 14, Issue 7, Pages 833–860
Véronique Forin, Asma Arabi, Vincent Guigonis, Georges Filipe, Albert Bensman and Christian Roux, Benefits of pamidronate in children with osteogenesis imperfecta: an open prospective study, Joint Bone Spine, Volume 72, Issue 4, July 2005, Pages 313-318.

Products: Bone resorption inhibitor

Alendronate
TextAlendronate belongs to the drug class known as biphosphonates. It slows bone loss and thus, is used for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis which is also known as “the brittle bone disease” in post-menopausal women. It is also utilized to increase the bone mass of men who are suffering from osteoporosis. It is recommended for both women and men who have acquired a form of osteoporosis which is occasionally due to steroid medications, for instance prednisone. This drug is also used to mitigate pain caused by Paget’s disease of the bone which is a painful condition that deforms and weakens the bones. Alendronate is given daily or weekly. Its side effects may include ulceration of the esophagus, skin rash, and eye problems. Alendronate is a drug classified as biphosphonates that is prescribed in treatment of bone disorders such as osteoporosis. Though it may be sold on its own, Alendronate is commonly marketed along with vitamin D which increases the absorption of the drug as well as helps in strengthening the bones.


Boniva
Fig1. Growing old is a part of life
B0NIVA AND OSTEOPOROSIS
Boniva (Generic Name: Ibandronic Acid or Ibandronate Sodium) is a drug that is used for preventing and treating oseteoporosis, an illness that weakens the bones and makes it fragile, in post-menopausal women who have high risks of having bone fractures. It is a potent biphosphonate which may also be used for the treatment of hypercalcemia, a condition wherein levels of calcium in the blood is elevated. Biphosphonate inhibits the action of osteoclasts which are cells in the body that break down bone tissue. This results in less bone loss. Studies show that this drug can significantly reduce the risk for developing spine fractures. However, its efficacy in decreasing the risk for developing neck and femur fractures has not yet been established. Aging is part of the cycle of life. Each and every one of us will one day have to grow old. There are several changes that come with aging, like physical weakening, decreased memory and mental cognition, and increased susceptibility to diseases. The elderly population is a group that has many medical concerns, one of which is osteoporosis. Continue reading...


CalciTrio
This innovative product has a combination of the three important nutrients in one single, easy to assume tablet in the form of CalciTrio, thus providing a convenient and more effective mean to manage bone health and other age related diseases. CalciTrio is a nutrient supplement which combines Calcium, Vitamin K2 and Vitamin D3.


Evista
Estrogenes are main female hormones, which level is decreasing after the menopause or ovary removal. They also regulate bone turnover, and its decrease leads to osteoporosis; a condition leading to a decrease in bone density and weakened bones. Evista (raloxifene) slows this weakening, by decreasing bone turnover and increasing bone density. This leads to a decreased risk of fractures. EVISTA is currently the only approved medicine proven to reduce the risk of spinal fractures due to osteoporosis and the risk of invasive breast cancer in postmenopausal women suffering with osteoporosis.


Fosamax
Fosamax basically alters the cycle of bone formation and breakdown in the body. It slows down bone loss while increasing bone mass which helps in preventing bone fractures. It belongs to a group of medicine known as bisphosphonates and it is used in men and women to treat or prevent osteoporosis that is caused by menopause or by taking steroids. Fosamax is also used to increase bone mass in men who have osteoporosis and treat Paget's disease of bone. In case of any surgery, it is necessary to reveal doctor that you are taking fosamax. The medication is only the part of entire exercise which includes diet changes, exercise, taking calcium and vitamin supplements.


Raloxifene
Raloxifene (generic name: raloxifene) is an oral drug that prevents osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a disease that is characterized by having fragile bones. It is common among women who have undergone menopause. Raloxifene reduces the incidence of vertebral structure by acting as the agonists of the oestrogen receptor in different tissues of the body, which initiates the formation of fragile bones. Raloxifene is also taken alongside with Vitamin D and Calcium, which makes the action of the drug more efficient. The side effects that have been recorded when taking Raloxifene include vasodilation and flu-like symptoms. Moreover, patients who are pregnant, have blood clot disorders and other cardiovascular anomalies are discouraged to take the medicine.


 

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