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HIV & AIDS

 

Products: HIV & AIDS

Combivir
The active ingredients of Combivir are lamivudine and zidovudine. Both these belong in non-the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) class of antiretroviral drugs.

The two ingredients have been shown to act synergistically against HIV.

HIV is a retrovirus: it holds all its genetic information in the form of RNA. When it infects a host cell, the RNA gets copied into DNA by an enzyme called reverse transcriptase. In the form of DNA, the viral genetic code can integrate itself into its hostís own DNA. Then, as the hostís DNA is copied into RNA and then proteins are produced according to the code, the viral DNA gets copied along, and produces its own proteins. The viral proteins together with viral RNA then join to make up more viruses. Lamivudine and zidovudine both work by inhibiting the action of reverse transcriptase, thus inhibiting the propagation of HIV.

Coadministration of lamivudine and zidovudine was shown to decrease the levels of HIV RNA in the body, and to increase the levels of CD4+ cells (cells of our immune system and one of the main targets of HIV Ė their levels normally decrease after an HIV infection).


Kaletra
Kaletra contains lopinavir and ritonavir as its active ingredients.

Lopinavir is a protease inhibitor. When viral RNA gets transcribed into DNA and DNA gets translated into proteins, the viral proteins produced are joined together, forming a long polypeptide sequence. In order for the different viral proteins to function properly, they must first separate from the long polypeptide sequence. HIV proteases take over the task of breaking the long polypeptide into functional proteins. Of course, this is bad news for us. Lopinavir functions by inhibiting HIV proteases and thus preventing the formation of functional viral proteins.

Lopinavir gets metabolised in the liver almost exclusively by CYP3A, a cytochrome P450 enzyme. This is why ritonavir is also administered with lopinavir; as it is a CYP3A inhibitor, and therefore has the potential to suppress lopinavirís metabolism, increasing its levels in the body and thus prolonging and potentiating its effects.


Reyataz
Reyataz is a protease inhibitor. When viral RNA gets transcribed into DNA and DNA gets translated into proteins, the viral proteins produced are joined together, forming a long polypeptide sequence. In order for the different viral proteins to function properly, they must first separate from the long polypeptide sequence. HIV proteases take over the task of breaking the long polypeptide into functional proteins; which can then assemble together with RNA to form new viruses. Reyataz functions by inhibiting HIV proteases and thus preventing the formation of functional viral proteins.


Sustiva
Sustiva (efavirenz) is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) , effective only for HIV type 1 (the most common type of HIV).

HIV is a retrovirus: it holds all its genetic information in the form of RNA. When it infects a host cell, the RNA gets copied into DNA by an enzyme called reverse transcriptase. In the form of DNA, the viral genetic code can integrate itself in its hostís own DNA. Then, as the hostís DNA is copied into RNA and then proteins are produced according to the code, the viral DNA gets copied along, and produces its own proteins. The viral proteins together with viral RNA then join to make up more viruses. HIV-1 inhibits the reverse transcriptase enzyme of HIV-1, leading to a reduction of HIV-1 levels in the body and an increase in the levels of CD4+ cells (cells of our immune system and one of the main targets of HIV Ė their levels normally decrease after an HIV infection).


Truvada
HIV is a retrovirus: it holds all its genetic information in the form of RNA. When it infects a host cell, the RNA gets copied into DNA by an enzyme called reverse transcriptase. In the form of DNA, the viral genetic code can integrate itself in its hostís own DNA. Then, as the hostís DNA is copied into RNA and then proteins are produced according to the code, the viral DNA gets copied along, and produces its own proteins. The viral proteins together with viral RNA then join to make up more viruses. Emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate both work by inhibiting the action of reverse transcriptase, thus inhibiting the propagation of HIV.

Emtricitabine in cells gets converted into emtricitabine 5'-triphosphate, an analogue of deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate, one of the four nucleotides from which DNA assembles. When viral RNA is reverse-transcribed into DNA in the cell, emtricitabine 5'-triphosphate gets incorporated in the place of deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate into the DNA that is being synthesised. When this happens, DNA synthesis is halted, as the next nucleotide can not form a bond with emtricitabine 5'-triphosphate (this DNA synthesis halt is called chain termination).


Viread
The active ingredient of Viread is tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, which belongs in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) class of antiretroviral drugs. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in cells gets converted into tenofovir diphosphate, an analogue of deoxyadenosine 5í-triphosphate, one of the four nucleotides from which DNA assembles. When viral RNA is reverse-transcribed into DNA in the cell, tenofovir diphosphate gets incorporated in the place of deoxyadenosine 5í-triphosphate into the DNA that is being synthesised. When this happens, DNA synthesis is halted, as the next nucleotide can not form a bond with tenofovir diphosphate (this DNA synthesis halt is called chain termination).
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate was shown to decrease the levels of HIV RNA in the body, and to increase the levels of CD4+ cells (cells of our immune system and one of the main targets of HIV Ė their levels normally decrease after an HIV infection).


Ziagen
The active ingredient of Ziagen is abacavir sulfate, which belongs in the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) class of antiretroviral drugs.

Abacavir sulfate in cells gets converted into carbovir triphosphate, an analogue of deoxyguanosine-5′-triphosphate, one of the four nucleotides from which DNA assembles. When viral RNA is reverse-transcribed into DNA in the cell, carbovir triphosphate gets incorporated in the place of deoxyguanosine-5′-triphosphate into the DNA that is being synthesised. When this happens, DNA synthesis is halted, as the next nucleotide can not form a bond with carbovir triphosphate (this DNA synthesis halt is called chain termination).

Ziagen was shown to decrease the levels of HIV RNA in the body, and to increase the levels of CD4+ cells (cells of our immune system and one of the main targets of HIV Ė their levels normally decrease after an HIV infection).


 

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HIV & AIDS
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