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Doxycycline Review Article

 

Doxycyline antibioticDoxycyline is an antibiotic which fights bacteria in the body and it is used to treat many bacterial infections, such as acne, chalmydia, gum disease, urinary tract infections and many others. The alcohol intake can stimulate the liver to metabolise doxycycline, so alcoholics may have reduced blood-levels of this antibiotic. Alcohol is not usually affecting the people who drink moderately and it can sometimes have positive effect in this case. In people who drink heavily the total intake of doxycyxline and the separate dosages should be increased. Furthermore, you should not take doxycycline if you are pregnant because it can affect the unborn baby or cause him a permanent tooth discolouration later in life. Doxycycline is a man made semi-synthetic drug which belongs to the classification of tetracyclines in antibiotics. It is usually used for the treatment of many different types of bacterial infections that affect different part of the body. It is effective against a large variety of bacteria which include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Hemophilus influenzae, Chlamydia psittaci, Neisseria gonorrhoea, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and many more. Doxycycline is also used as an aid in controlling acne. This drug may have other functions which may be determined by a physician. However, this medication does not work for flu, colds, and other types of viral infections. Side effects of taking this drug may include loss of effectiveness of oral contraceptives, nausea, upset stomach, and fatigue. Continue reading...

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Doxycycline is an antibiotic medicine belonging to the class called "tetracyclines." It is used to treat bacterial infections in many different parts of the body. It is effective against a wide variety of bacteria, such as Hemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia psittaci, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoea, and many others. Doxycycline is used to treat infections and to help control acne. Doxycycline also may be used for other problems as determined by your doctor. Doxycycline will not work for colds, flu, or other virus infections.

Doxycycline is also active against the parasite that causes malaria. It is sometimes used to treat malaria, and can also be used to prevent it when visiting high-risk malarial areas, in particular areas where the malaria parasite is resistant to chloroquine.
In October 2001, FDA published a Federal Register notice clarifying that these drugs were approved for inhalational anthrax (post-exposure).

sinusitisDoxycycline is Prescribed for:
many different types of infections, including respiratory tract infections due to Hemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Mycoplasma pneumoniae. It also is used for the treatment of Acne vulgaris; Bubonic plague; Chlamydia; Cholera; Chronic bronchitis; Death and decay of tissue in a infected wound due to gas production by the infecting bacteria (gas gangrene); Disease caused by infection with Leptospira bacteria (Weil's Disease/leptospirosis); Disease of rodents and rabbits that can be transmitted to humans tularaemia); Eye infections; Gonorrhoea; Infection caused by Brucella bacteria (brucellosis); Infection of the lungs and airways chest or lower respiratory tract infection); Infections caused by Rickettsiae micro-organisms transmitted by lice, fleas, ticks and mites; Infections of the urinary tract; Infectious disease of parrots and man (parrot fever/psittacosis); Infectious disease of rodents that can be transmitted to humans (melioidosis); Inflammation of the sinuses due to infection (sinusitis); Lesions in the groin and genitalia caused by a sexually transmitted bacteria granuloma inguinale); Louse and tick-bourne relapsing fever; Pneumonia; Prevention of an infectious disease called Scrub typhus; Prevention of infection with Leptospira bacteria (leptospirosis); Prevention of malaria; Prevention of traveller's diarrhoea enterotoxigenic E coli); Protozoal infection of the intestine amoebiasis); Sexually transmitted infection that causes genital ulcers (chancroid); Syphilis; Tetanus; Treatment of malaria caused by chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum.

Drug Mechanism:
Doxycycline has been shown to inhibit collagenase activity in vitro. Additional studies have shown that doxycycline reduces the elevated collagenase activity in the gingival crevicular fluid of patients with adult periodontitis. The clinical significance of these findings is not known.

Antibacterial (systemic); antiprotozoal—Tetracyclines are broad-spectrum bacteriostatic agents that act by inhibiting protein synthesis by blocking the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA (transfer RNA) to the mRNA (messenger RNA)-ribosome complex. Reversible binding occurs primarily at the 30 S ribosomal subunit of susceptible organisms. Bacterial cell wall synthesis is not inhibited.
Diuretic (syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone [SIADH])—In the treatment of SIADH, demeclocycline acts by inhibiting ADH-induced water reabsorption in the distal portion of the convoluted tubules and collecting ducts of the kidneys, thereby causing water diuresis.

Dosage Form:
The absorption of doxycycline is not markedly affected by food, and therefore, it can be taken with meals. For most infections, doxycycline is taken once or twice daily for 7 to 14 days. Sometimes, the first dose is given as a "double dose," that is, twice as large as the remainder of the doses.

Drug Interactions:
It is recommended that doxycycline not be taken at the same time as aluminum-, magnesium-, or calcium- based antacids, such as Mylanta, Maalox, Tums, or Rolaids because, like food, these medications bind doxycycline in the intestine. Similarly, doxycycline should not be taken with minerals (such as calcium or iron), with bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto Bismol). Doxycycline may enhance the activity of warfarin (Coumadin) and cause excessive "thinning" of the blood, necessitating a reduction in the dose of warfarin. Phenytoin (Dilantin), carbamazepine (Tegretol), and barbiturates (such as phenobarbital) may enhance the metabolism (destruction) of doxycycline thus making it less effective.

Pregnancy:
Tetracycline antibiotics, such as doxycycline, can have toxic effects on development of bone in the fetus. Therefore, tetracyclines are not recommended during pregnancy unless there is no other appropriate antibiotic.

Nursing Mothers:
Doxycycline is secreted into breast milk. Since tetracyclines can cause decreased bone, the use of tetracyclines in nursing mothers is of concern. The physician must decide whether to recommend that a nursing mother discontinue nursing during treatment with tetracyclines or to choose a different antibiotic.

Dietary and Alcohol Considerations:
Avoid meats, iron-fortified cereals and iron supplements for 2 hours before and after taking this drug. Alcoholics may have reduced blood levels of doxycycline. This is because in this group of people alcohol stimulates the liver to metabolise the doxycycline. Alcohol has not been found to have this effect in people who drink moderately.

Possible Side Effects:
Doxycycline is generally well-tolerated. The most common side effects are diarrhea or loose stools, nausea, abdominal pain, and vomiting. Tetracyclines, such as doxycycline, may cause tooth discoloration if used in persons below 8 years of age. Exaggerated sunburn can occur with tetracyclines; therefore, sunlight should be minimized during treatment.

Storage:
Capsules should be kept below 30°C (86°F). The suspension should be refrigerated and shaken prior to each use. Talk to your pharmacist about the proper disposal of your medication. Throw away any medication that is outdated or no longer needed.

Package Size and Type:
Capsules: 50mg, 100mg; Tablets: 100mg; Suspension: 25 mg/teaspoon; Syrup: 50 mg/teaspoon.


Alcohol in red wine and Resveratrol:
Most of us wish at one time or another for that magic bullet: a simple pill that would safely and effectively reduce the effects of aging; prevent cancer, heart disease, and diabetes; increase memory, and extend life, and all without having to count calories.

The magic bullet may have been found when David Sinclair at Harvard University and his colleagues demonstrated that resveratrol, a chemical found in plants, mimics the effects of CR. Just as limiting calories triggers the low-level stress response - hormesis - which, in turn, jump-starts the SIRT1 longevity gene, resveratrol mimics this stress, activating SIRT1.

For years many CR researchers have stated that they hope calorie restriction science will lead to the development of calorie restriction mimetics, that is, drugs that mimic the health and longevity benefits of a calorie restriction without the need to limit calories. Now resveratrol has emerged as the leading candidate for the mimetic many hoped for. The key to resveratrol benefits is that it activates the same longevity genes and cell-signaling pattern as calorie restriction.

What has excited the scientific community is the research showed that resveratrol may not only provide the same beneficial as CR without restricted calories, but it may also, in fact, counteract the damage effect of high-caloric diet. In the latest study by Dr. Siclair's lab and the National Institute of Aging, a group of mice was fed a diet consisting of 60 percent fat, which, unsurprisingly, caused weight gain, symptoms of diabetes, and early death. Another group of mice was fed the same diet but was given resveratrol. Although they gained as much weight as the controll group, these mice showed no signes of the elevated glucose and insulin levels that would indicate diabetes.

Some red wines like Hungarian Pinot Noit may contain high amount of resveratrol, as do grapes, rasberries, peanuts, and numerous other plants.

Red wine is a rich source of resveratrol, and contains significantly more resveratrol than white wine. This is because the grape skins are left in with the juice for longer when making red wine, and the skins are where most of the resveratrol is found. The resveratrol content varies considerably from one red wine to another, however. So, what are the best red wines for resveratrol content?

By far the highest resveratrol content (around 40mg/L) is found in both red and white wines made from the thick-skinned Muscadine grape.

Other red wines typically contain between 2 and 12.5mg of resveratrol per liter. Of the more popular grape varieties, Pinot Noir produces wines with the highest average resveratrol levels. The Pinot Noir grape tends to thrive in temperate, damp climates which also encourage molds and yeasts that attack vines and other plants. In this humid environment, plants produce increased quantities of resveratrol to defend against oxidization damage from fungal growth and other external pressures. Scientists have discovered that resveratrol has similar antioxidant benefits for the human body.

Pinot Noir from its native Burgundy, France, as well as from Hungary generally contains more resveratrol than the equivalent wine from a hotter, dryer area such as California or Australia. Levels will also vary significantly from one vintage to another depending on the temperature and rainfall during the growing period. Pinot Noir red wine from Hungary often contains 30 mg/L and higher of Resveratrol.

See also: Flavonoids


 

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