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Echinacea/ Vit. C 1000/ Zinc prescribing information

 



C vitamin 1000mg+Echinacea+Zn Description

Echinacea, which is an herb found in region of northern part of America with a chemical composition of chemicals like volatile oils, polysaccharides, flavanoids, glycoproteins and alkamides. The same chemical composition makes it beneficial for human consumption in case of cold. However, some debates suggest that it may not be beneficial for cold. Each of these tablets contains 1000 mg of Vitamin C, 15 mg Zinc and 150 mg of Echinacea. The mentioned substances are said to hold back the immune system and the dosage of the medicine depends on the weight of an individual. These medicines are also known as immune stimulators that are used for the treatment of cancer and to suppress the body's immune system in case of organ transplant. Human body does not reject the new-transplanted organ if its immune system is suppressed.

Description
The medicine Echinacea as mentioned above is an immuno-stimulator that helps in stimulating the immune system of human body to ward off the infections present in it. However, some analysis and studies conducted earlier on suggests no special benefits. In the early 19th century, it was used as a basic antimicrobial herb for the treatment of problems like anthrax, snakebite and as a painkiller. Later on in the year 1930, it was popularised as a herbal medicine in regions of Europe and America.

However, its modern day use for the treatment of cold started when a Swiss herbal medicine maker came to know that a nearby American tribe in region of South Dakota used Echinacea for the treatment of common cold. However, it was earlier established that the tribes did not use Echinacea for treating cold but to treat the symptoms caused by cold. The people from Cheyenne used it to cure sore throats and the people of Kiowa used it to treat cough and sore throat while people from tribes of Lakotah utilized as an analgesic.
The base or the chemicals composed in Echinacea are mostly complex chemicals of variable effect. In the chemical composition of Echinacea, some of the chemicals are directly antimicrobial, while the others have the function of stimulating the immune system. All species on earth contain chemical compound known as phenols that are common in most of the plants. There are multiple compounds in Phenol two of which, cichoric acid and caftaric acid, which are present in E. pupurea. The other compound of phenol is echinacoside that is increasingly found in E. angustifolia and E. pallida roots. In the production of herbal remedies, these compounds of phenols serve as Echinacea in the product. Other than these, the chemical compounds of alkylamides and polysaccharides are important in Echinacea health effects. Studies show that adequate consumption of Vitamin C and Zinc cures the symptoms and decreases the respiratory tract infection duration like common cold. Other than that, Zinc and Vitamin C assist are used in the treatment and in improving health conditions during diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia. Vitamin C intake improves human immune system.

Echinacea is popularly believed to be an immunostimulator, stimulating the body's non-specific immune system and warding off infections. A study commonly used to support that belief is a 2007 meta-analysis in The Lancet Infectious Diseases. The studies pooled in the meta-analysis used different types of echinacea, different parts of the plant, and various dosages. This review cannot inform recommendations on the efficacy of any particular type of echinacea, dosage, or treatment regimen. The safety of echinacea under long-term use is also unknown.
History: Echinacea angustifolia was widely used by the North American Plains Indians for its general medicinal qualities. Echinacea was one of the basic antimicrobial herbs of eclectic medicine from the mid 19th century through the early 20th century, and its use was documented for snakebite, anthrax, and for relief of pain. In the 1930s echinacea became popular in both Europe and America as a herbal medicine. According to Wallace Sampson, MD, its modern day use as a treatment for the common cold began when a Swiss herbal supplement maker was "erroneously told" that echinacea was used for cold prevention by Native American tribes who lived in the area of South Dakota. Although Native American tribes didn't use echinacea to prevent the common cold, some Plains tribes did use echinacea to treat some of the symptoms that could be caused by the common cold: The Kiowa used it for coughs and sore throats, the Cheyenne for sore throats, the Pawnee for headaches, and many tribes including the Lakotah used it as an analgesic.

Native Americans learned of E. angustifolia by observing elk seeking out the plants and consuming them when sick or wounded, and identified those plants as elk root.

Active substancesLike most crude drugs from plant or animal origin, the constituent base for echinacea is complex, consisting of a wide variety of chemicals of variable effect and potency. Some chemicals may be directly antimicrobial, while others may work at stimulating or modulating different parts of the immune system. All species have chemical compounds called phenols, which are common to many other plants. Both the phenol compounds cichoric acid and caftaric acid are present in E. purpurea, other phenols include echinacoside, which is found in greater levels within E. angustifolia and E. pallida roots than in other species. When making herbal remedies, these phenols can serve as markers for the quantity of raw echinacea in the product. Other chemical constituents that may be important in echinacea health effects include alkylamides and polysaccharides.

The immunomodulatory effects of echinacea preparations could be caused by fat-soluble alkylamides (alkamides), which occur mostly in E. angustifolia and E. purpurea but not in E. pallida. Alkylamides bind to human CB2 and CB1 cannabinoid receptors and thus inhibit tumor necrosis factor ? TNF-alpha. [21]. These Alkylamides have similar potency to that of THC at the CB2 receptor, with THC being around 1.5 times stronger (~40 nm vs ~60 nm affinities). However, potency is dramatically less than that of THC at the psychoactive CB1 receptor (~40 nm vs ~ >1500 nm affinities).

As with any herbal preparation, individual doses may vary significantly in active chemical composition. In addition to poor process control which may affect inter- and intra-batch homogeneity, species, plant part, extraction method, and contamination or adulteration with other products all lead to variability between products.

Root or whole plantAs with any plant, the chemical makeup of echinacea is not consistent throughout the organism. In particular, the root has been promoted as containing a more efficacious mixture of active chemicals. A 2003 study in the Journal of the American Medical Association (Taylor et al. 2003) found that when echinacea products made from the entire plant were taken after the second cold symptom appeared they provided no measurable beneficial effect for children in treating the severity or duration of symptoms caused by the common cold virus. The study has been criticized for using whole-plant extracts instead of root extracts, and the dosages studied were lower than those recommended by herbalists.[citation needed] A 2005 study in the New England Journal of Medicine (Turner, 2005) focused on several root extracts, but still found no statistically significant effects on duration, intensity, or prevention of symptoms


Ann Nutr Metab. 2006;50(2):85-94. Epub 2005 Dec 21.
Wintergerst ES, Maggini S, Hornig DH.

Immune-enhancing role of vitamin C and zinc and effect on clinical conditions.

Vitamin C concentrations in the plasma and leukocytes rapidly decline during infections and stress. Supplementation of vitamin C was found to improve components of the human immune system such as antimicrobial and natural killer cell activities, lymphocyte proliferation, chemotaxis, and delayed-type hypersensitivity. Vitamin C contributes to maintaining the redox integrity of cells and thereby protects them against reactive oxygen species generated during the respiratory burst and in the inflammatory response. Likewise, zinc undernutrition or deficiency was shown to impair cellular mediators of innate immunity such as phagocytosis, natural killer cell activity, and the generation of oxidative burst. Therefore, both nutrients play important roles in immune function and the modulation of host resistance to infectious agents, reducing the risk, severity, and duration of infectious diseases. This is of special importance in populations in which insufficient intake of these nutrients is prevalent. In the developing world, this is the case in low- and middle-income countries, but also in subpopulations in industrialized countries, e.g. in the elderly. A large number of randomized controlled intervention trials with intakes of up to 1 g of vitamin C and up to 30 mg of zinc are available. These trials document that adequate intakes of vitamin C and zinc ameliorate symptoms and shorten the duration of respiratory tract infections including the common cold. Furthermore, vitamin C and zinc reduce the incidence and improve the outcome of pneumonia, malaria, and diarrhea infections, especially in children in developing countries.


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