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Fareston Review Article

 

Fareston (generic name toremifene) is used to slow down the growth of metastatic breast cancer which has spread from the original tumour. It works by blocking estrogen from reaching cancer cells. Some types of breast cancer require estrogen to grow. Unlike chemotherapy, fareston does not actually destroy cancer cells. Fareston is also preventing the development of prostate cancer. The recommended dosage of fareston is 60 mg once a day or as prescribed by doctor. Fareston was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in October 1995.

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FARESTON IN BREAST CANCER TREATMENT


Overview


It is only natural to assume that men have a higher probability to go through serious health problems, particularly Prostate cancer and Lung cancer and that is mainly because of their habits such as smoking and drinking associated with unhealthy negligence. And still it is not so.


If you are a strong and successful woman, with a good career and a healthy lifestyle, you probably imagine that you cannot be touched by those deadly diseases such as cancer. You may want to take the time to reconsider a serious and yet quite imminent threat- breast cancer. National Cancer Institute, SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 2007
Every year, 1.3 million women report breast cancer development. Sadly, 465.000 women diagnosed with breast cancer will die. This makes breast cancer the second deadliest disease in women (National Cancer Institute, SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 2007). Consequently, it becomes obvious that women need to get immediate and proper information about this dreadful disease. The acknowledgement of breast cancer and its risks can help women improve their life conditions and increase their lifespan.


Breast cancer affects women of all ages but generally all adult women undergo high risk of developing breast cancer. And that is because the growth of cancer cells depends mainly on the Estrogen hormone (Estrogen-caused breast cancer incidence is higher than 80%). Accordingly, breast cancer is present significantly more in menopause (over the age of 40) and elder women.


How breast cancer affects women
The causes of breast cancer are various depending on age, diet, genes and other unrelated factors. Out of the many possible causes, diet has been intensively studied in the recent years due to its direct impact to the Estrogen milieu, which plays an essential role in mediation of the cancer conditions. Based on this concept, various medications such as Fareston (generic name Toremifene) have showed remarkable results in inhibiting the tumors’ growth. That is because the drug operates by reducing the Estrogen volume.


Toremifene’s Pharmacology


Toremifene and Toremifene citrate are specific cancer medications for breast cancer patients. However, there have been recorded certain rare cases in which Toremifene had significantly better results than Toremifene citrate. Toremifene is classified as an anti-estrogen drug. Scientifically known as the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator- SERM, Toremifene reduces to activity of Estrogen in internal functions. This action may be performed by either reducing the amount of Estrogen or by suppressing the actions of Estrogen on tissues (breast cells to be more specific). Estrogen is present in both male and female anatomy and has various and quite important functions in the body. Among its functions you can name: supporting secondary sex characteristics, accelerating metabolism, stimulating female reproductive organs such as uterus and vagina. However, when cancer develops in the breast, estrogen stimulates the growth of MCF-7 cancer cells leading to metastasis.


Estrogen ends its role when it binds to the estrogen receptor. These molecules once bound to their appropriate ligands (SERM) will activate genes transcriptions, leading to the growth of cells and tissues. SERM compounds such as Toremifene appear to be Estrogen antagonists and alternatively bind with an estrogen receptor causing certain abnormal changes in the formation of tissues, subsequently inducing the growth of cancer cells (Sally G., 2003)


SERM
Reports on Toremifene Usage


Toremifene is a chlorinated analogue of Tamoxifen, a drug that has so-far been widely used for the treatment of breast cancer patients. Toremifene was developed and tested as an alternative medicine to Tamoxifen (Pagani et al., 2004) since Tamoxifen was shown to have carcinogenic effects in rats (Greaves et al., 1993).
Recently, Toremifene was shown to be as efficient as Tamoxifen as an adjuvant in the endocrine therapy for breast cancer patients (Wen-Bin Z. et al., 2011). The same study showed that the apparent side effects of the two drugs were similar. Administration of Toremifene in a dose of 60 to 240 mg showed similar therapeutic effects to the administration of 20 or 40 mg/day of Tamoxifen (Wiseman L.R. and Goa K.L., 1997). Another study showed that 60mg/day of Toremifene had similar potential for the treatment of postmenopausal hormone-dependent breast cancer, showing positive effects in about 50% of the treated patients. (M?enp?? JU and Ala-Fossi SL., 1997). The adverse effects of Toremifene are similar to those of Tamoxifen and include sweating, hot flushes, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness (Wiseman L.R. and Goa K.L., 1997). Toremifene showed a remarkable efficacy in encouraging the apoptosis of MCF-7 cancer cells (apoptosis is the process of programmed cell death) and inhibiting the mitosis of the same cells (mitosis is the process by which cells divide and hence multiply). Particularly, after 3 days of treatment with 7.5 μM Toremifene, 60% of the cancer cells went through apoptosis and mitosis was completely suppressed (Anni M. et al., 1993).
Toremifene was also shown to increase the levels of HDL cholesterol by as much as 14% (Saarto et al., 1996). HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol is that cholesterol which is good for your health and contributes to lowering the risk of coronary artery disease. Moreover, Toremifene reduced the levels of LDL cholesterol. LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) cholesterol can be harmful as it can aggregate on the walls of blood vessels, causing atherosclerosis and leading to cardiovascular diseases. These results were obtained after a 12 months period of Toremifene administration.


Conclusion


Toremifene with its various advantages appears to be an efficient and safe therapy for breast cancer patients, especially for postmenopausal women suffering from other possibly fatal diseases.


REFERENCES


Anni M. W?rri, Riikka L. Huovinen, Aire M. Laine, Paula M. Martikainen and Pirkko L. H?rk?nen, Apoptosis in Toremifene-Induced Growth Inhibition of Human Breast Cancer Cells In Vivo and In Vitro, 1993, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Volume85, Issue17, Pp. 1412-1418

M?enp?? JU, Ala-Fossi SL., Toremifene in postmenopausal breast cancer. Efficacy, safety and cost, 1997 Oct;11(4):261-70.
National Cancer Institute, SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 2007. Statistics based on data, 2000-2004.

T Saarto, C Blomqvist, C Ehnholm, MR Taskinen and I Elomaa,Antiatherogenic effects of adjuvant antiestrogens: a randomized trial comparing the effects of tamoxifen and toremifene on plasma lipid levels in postmenopausal women with node-positive breast cancer, 1996, Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol 14, 429-433, Copyright © 1996 by American Society of Clinical Oncology

Wen-Bin Zhou, Qiang Ding, Ling Chen, Xiao-An Liu and Shui Wang, Toremifene is an effective and safe alternative to tamoxifen in adjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer: results of four randomized trials, Breast Cancer Research and Treatment , Volume 128, Number 3, 625-631, DOI: 10.1007/s10549-011-1556-5

Wiseman L. R. and Goa K. L., Toremifene : A review of its pharmacological properties and clinical efficacy in the management of advanced breast cancer, 1997, Jul, 54(1):141-60.


 

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