Glucobay Review Article
Precose is an oral medication used to treat the noninsulin-dependent diabetes, also known as type II diabetes, when high blood sugar levels cannot be controlled just by diet. It works by slowing the body's digestion of carbohydrates so that blood sugar levels won't surge upward after a meal. Precose can be taken alone or in combination with other diabetes medications such as Diabinese, Micronase, Glucophage or Insulin.
Keywords: acarbose, glucobay tablets, glucobay 50, glucobay side effects, glucobay 100.
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Precose is an oral medication used to treat type 2 (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes when high blood sugar levels cannot be controlled by diet alone. Precose works by slowing the body's digestion of carbohydrates so that blood sugar levels won't surge upward after a meal. Precose may be taken alone or in combination with certain other diabetes medications such as Diabinese, Micronase, Glucophage, and Insulin.
Acarbose is an oral medication that is used to control blood sugar levels in type II (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes. It belongs to a class of drugs called alpha-glucosidase inhibitors which also includes miglitol (Glyset). Acarbose was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use in 1995.
Acarbose is Prescribed for:
It is believed that strict sugar control in diabetics decreases the risk of eye, kidney, and nerve damage. Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors are used to help lower blood sugar levels that are not controlled by diet and exercise. Acarbose can be used alone to treat type II diabetes or can be combined with sulfonylureas such as glyburide (Diabeta) or metformin (Glucophage) or with insulin. This medication is sometimes prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
Acarbose works by slowing the actions of alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase enzymes thereby slowing the appearance of sugar in the blood after a meal. Slowing food digestion helps keep blood glucose from rising very high after meals.
The initial acarbose dose may start 25 mg three times daily and then increase after four to eight weeks to 50-100 mg three times daily. Acarbose should be taken at the first bite of each meal.
Smaller doses may be adequate for patients with severe kidney dysfunction or liver disease. Acarbose is not recommended if cirrhosis is present. Acarbose therapy is not advised in the presence of certain medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or intestinal obstruction and chronic intestinal diseases that interfere with digestion or absorption such as Crohn's disease.
Acarbose doses should be adjusted based upon blood glucose levels taken one hour after a meal and blood HbA1c levels taken about three months after starting or changing the dose. (HbA1c is a chemical in the blood that is a good indicator of blood glucose control.)
Acarbose may interfere with digoxin absorption thereby decreasing digoxin blood levels and its effect. Therefore, the digoxin dose may need to be increased if acarbose is begun.
Since adding insulin or a sulfonylurea to acarbose therapy may lower blood glucose more than acarbose alone, the risk for developing hypoglycemia is greater when these drugs are combined. Caution should be used when combining these drugs.
If mild to moderate hypoglycemia occurs while taking acarbose in combination with another anti-diabetic agent, the hypoglycemia should be treated with oral glucose (dextrose) instead of sucrose (table sugar) because acarbose blocks the digestion of sucrose to glucose, and hypoglycemia will not be corrected rapidly with sucrose. Acarbose alone does not produce hypoglycemia.
Acarbose is in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration pregnancy category B. This means that it is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby. Do not take acarbose without first talking to your doctor if you are pregnant or could become pregnant during treatment.
Acarbose is excreted in the milk of lactating animals, but no human studies have been conducted. Do not take acarbose without first talking to your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby. Acarbose passes into breast milk and may affect a nursing infant.
Alcohol increases blood sugar; ask your doctor for information on how much is safe to drink.
Possible Side Effects:
The most common side effects with acarbose therapy are abdominal pain, diarrhea and flatulence. There is a rare possibility that these gastrointestinal side effects may become severe and progress to paralytic ileus. Other possible but rare side effects are an increase in liver enzymes, and decreases in hematocrit, calcium or vitamin B6 levels.
Acarbose should be stored at room temperature, 59-86°F (15-30°C) away from moisture and heat in he container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children.
Package Size and Type:
Tablets: 25, 50 and 100 mg.
Caution! Before starting to take this medicine, it is vital that you should consult your doctor! Do not use it on your own initiative, without medical advice.
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Glucobay tablets or generic Precose is prescribed to cure the type 2 (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes when high blood sugar levels fails to be controlled by diet only. Glucobay functions inside the body by decreasing the body's digestion of carbohydrates because of which the blood sugar levels of the patient will never increase after a meal. This drug is administered for strict sugar control in diabetics that helps in reducing the risks for a number of diabetic disorders like kidney, eye, and nerve destruction. Glucobay 50 or Glucobay 100 tab dosage is directed to patients with type II diabetes. This drug is composed of acarbose that belongs to a group of substance called glucosidase inhibitors that are highly effective in treating diabetes.
The treatment with glucobay is directed in combination to a balanced diet and exercise. It can also be used along with other diabetic medications. Glucobay should be avoided by pregnant women or those who are planning to get pregnant. It should also be avoided by nursing mothers. You should immediately consult your doctor if any possible allergic reaction occurs when using this medicine. Patients with liver or kidney disease and stomach or bowel disease should never use this medicine after proper consultation.
Some rare Glucobay side effects include: skin rash or itching, unusual tiredness, weight loss, yellowing of the eyes or skin, change of urine color, loss of appetite etc. Drug interactions with medicines like glipizide, glyburide, metformin or insulin is reported to cause hypoglycemia. Other possible side effects include: rapid heartbeat, muscle weakness, blurred vision, shallow breathing, sweating, anxiety, loss of consciousness difficulty concentrating, nervousness, confusion, hunger, nausea, fatigue, pale skin, headache, palpitations, mouth numbness, tingling in the fingers, tremors, uncontrolled yawning, cold sensations and irritability. The medicine needs to be stored away from moisture and heat in 59-86°F (15-30°C) room temperature.
Broccoli can prevent heart damage due to diabetes – a study
Researchers from University of Warwick have found that broccoli consumption can prevent the damage to heart blood vessels by diabetes.
People with diabetes have a particularly high risk of diseases linked to damaged blood vessels such as heart disease, stroke and kidney failure. In the present research, Sulforaphane(SFN) found in Broccoli is found to enhance the production of enzymes to protect vessels as well as reduce high levels of molecules which cause significant cell damage.
In a study, human microvascular endothelial cells were incubated in low and high glucose concentrations (5 and 30 mM) and activation of nrf2 was assessed and compared. nrf2 is a transcription factor that regulates gene expression through promoter antioxidant response element(ARE). It also regulates the transcription of number of protective and metabolic enzymes. SFN doubled the activation of nrf2 and increases ARE linked gene expression. There was 3 to 5 fold increased expression of transketolase and glutathione reductase enzymes and thus prevented the formation of ROS by 73 percent caused by hyperglycemia. Knocking out nrf2 increased ROS formation proving that SFN prevents ROS formation by activation of nrf2. SFN also prevented hyperglycemia induced activation of the hexosamine and protein kinase C pathways there by preventing increased cellular accumulation and excretion of the glycating agent, methylglyoxal.
Anti aging glycopeptides promising against diabetes – A report:
Protokinetics is a biotechnology company that has developed and patented a family of synthetic anti aging glycoproteins for medical purpose. The anti aging concept by the company has been demonstrated in the laboratory to enhance and extend life of biological cells that are subjected to extreme stress condition.
One of the potential approaches to treat type 1 diabetes is the transplantation of insulin producing islet cells into the body. Transplanting cells from donor requires the patient receiving cells to be on immune suppressing drugs so that the islets can survive and develop. Producing islets from the person having type 1 diabetes increases the chances of islets survival, but such production involves immense difficulty. To decrease the severity of this purpose the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells islet cells has been done in laboratory which can be prove helpful for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.
Increasing the number of available stem cells to convert them into pancreatic islet cells would increase the number of islet cells that can be further implanted. Protokinetics have said that studies conducted by universities have shown a remarkable increase in the output of stem cells after cryopreservation using anti aging glycopeptides (AAGP).
Inhaled insulin for diabetics - Afrezza
In the recent developments for the treatment of diabetes, scientists have developed a new form of insulin that can be inhaled for absorption through lungs. The insulin called by the name of Afrezza manages blood glucose levels more tightly and lowers the risk of hypoglycaemia. This can prove to be heartening news for diabetics who now can stop taking the painful shots to keep their blood sugar in control.
Afrezza is a quick acting insulin therapy for the treatment of hyperglycaemia (believed to be responsible for diabetes related complications) that can help patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It employs a new method called as techno sphere and is administered at the start of the meal. It works by dissolving immediately upon inhalation there by delivering insulin through lungs into bloodstream. The reaction time is 12 to 14 minutes.
Clinical trials have showed that afrezza reduces the risk of hypoglycaemia as compared to other injected insulin’s. The trials were conducted over 5000 patients who return good results. The approval by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the insulin is still pending.
Glucobay Review Article