Nootropil Review Article
Piracetam is nootropic agent. An effect on metabolism has been shown in man indicating improved oxygen utilisation. NOOTROPIL has a low toxicity and has no stimulating, sedative or neurovegitative activities. Piracetam has been used with varying effect in the following conditions and could influence them favorably, although no convincing proof of efficacy has been submitted.
1. Involutional syndromes related to ageing.
2. Chronic alcoholism.
Piracetam has not been found to have any contra-indications to date.
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Smart drugs – are they really working?
“Nootropic Revolution” began in the late 1960’s and that is when Piracetam (PIR) was developed as well. The PIR-nootropics were unique in many ways. They were effective both physically and medically and they didn’t have side effects which was not common among other regular drugs. Moreover, they didn’t just fight the disease but they improved the functioning of a “normal” brain.
Piracetam, like many other PIR-nootropics, alters metabolic and bio-energetic processes in the nerve cells. It also increases the speed of information processing and activates the synthesis of proteins. This is reflected in the results of many studies which were conducted in the in recent years.
Picaretam was widely used for the treatment of ageing-related disorders such as psycho-organic syndrome of different origins.
Here is an example of a clinical trial performed on older patients who presented various neuropsychiatric symptoms. These studies provided an overall feedback on the effects of the Piracetam treatment. The effects were observed by doctors as well as by the patients themselves. It should be also pointed out that Piracetam treatment improved the cognitive functions and reduced psychiatric symptoms such as depression and disorders (Avedisova, 2004).
A number of 5.306 patients, aged between 14-96 years, with signs of cerebral vascular insufficiency took part in an open clinical trial. They were administered Nootropil (1200 mg / day) for 4 weeks. Later on, 42 patients under 45 years of age and 270 patients who received additional therapy were excluded from the trial.
Following the 4 weeks of Nootropil treatment, overall health improvement was recorded in 88% of the patients. Additionally, the following improvements were recorded:
• The number of patients with dizziness decreased from 3.265 to 960 (70.6%),
• The number of patients with a decrease in motivation diminished from 3.803 to 1.185 (68.8%)
• The number of patients with severe fatigue decreased from 4.255 to 1.474 (65, 4%),
• The number of patients who suffered from depression reduced from 2.238 to 830 (62.9%),
• The number of patients presenting a reduction in attention went from 4.676 to 1.759 (62.4%),
• The number of patients with adaptation issues reduced from 1.566 to 623 (60, 2%),
• The number of patients with ringing in the ears reduced from 2.064 to 888 (57%),
• The number of patients who showed perception issues went from 4.518 to 2086 (53.8%),
• The number of patients with sleep disorders also reduced from 3.024 to 1.690 (44.1 %).
Only 339 (6.6%) patients reported minor side effects such as sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal disturbances, agitation, and headaches (Avedisova, 2004).
Another study was held by Itil et al. (1986). They had 4 groups of patients, 15 in each group. The patients suffered from dementia. Three groups were treated with Nootropil drugs (doses of 800, 1600 and 2400mg daily) and the fourth group was given placebo for 3 months.
Most of the patients, who had very slow EGG patterns before the treatment showed a "normalization" of their brain functions after the treatment.
A number of 11.654 patients, average age was 56 years, took part in another study. More than 70% of them had memory disorders. Other disorders included vertigo (650 patients), hypertension (423 patients), headaches (320 patients), and depression (213 patients). Nootropil treatment was administered for 90 days. Patients under 60 took 2 capsules, 3 times a day (2400 mg/ day), patients over 60 took 1 gr of liquid solution 3 times a day (3 g / day). Patients were examined before treatment, on the 45th and on the 90th day of treatment. The results showed high efficiency of Nootropil: 70% of physicians and 90% of patients reported positive effects of the drug and only 7% of patients complained of side effects (Croisile et al., 1991).
One more study was held by Saletu et al. in 1985. They have conducted a clinical trial that lasted for 4 weeks. They gave out Nootropil based drugs (2.400mg per day) to one group of patients and placebo to the other (average age: 80 years). The patients suffered from the "Organic Brain Syndrome in Late Life." The results of this particular clinical trial indicated a decrease in delta and theta brain waves activity and an increase in alpha and beta brain waves activity.
Nootropil drugs are called “smart drugs” or the “drugs of the new generation” as they can boost brain’s activity without affecting the nervous system itself. They improve mental functions such as cognition, memory, intelligence, motivation, attention, and concentration. The term Nootropic was first used by Dr. Giurgea (Giurgea, 1972). He used the term to describe the first substance found to have beneficial effects in treating conditions such as memory loss, age related memory decline and lack of concentration. The substance was Piracetam (branded Nootropil). The Piracetam treatment proved beneficial and did not have any strongly negative side effects (Basel, 1999).
The main difference between Nootropil drugs and other “memory enhancers” stands in the fact that Nootropics affect the area of the brain called Corpus Callosum. Corpus Callosum is a particular part of the brain that connects the logical and creative sides of the brain. That’s the reason why artists, writers and people of other “creative” professions realize that they can achieve much more, if they regularly take nootropics.
Therefore, Nootropics can prevent aging related syndromes, which are likely to affect everyone, by boosting brain activity and memory, and helping your body function properly. In addition, the “drugs of the new generation” may used by people of different ages because they can prevent various diseases and mental conditions. They can even be used by students who want to succeed in their exams or by adults who experience sleeping disorders. Finally, Nootropics can treat conditions such as depression, alcoholism, Alzheimer’s, senile dementia, dyspraxia, schizophrenia, and, in some cases, even help people quit smoking.
Avedisova ?.?. Psychiatry and Psychopharmocoter. 2004. ?. 6. ? 4. ?. 189.
Croisile B., Mauguiere F.Trillet M. Movement Disorders. 1996. Vol. 11, Suppl. 1. - P. 353
Corneliu E. Giurgea. Actualites Pharmacoloques. 1972. 25th ed. serie. pp 115-156
Guerrini R. Movement Disorders. 1996. Vol. 11, Suppl 1, Abs. pp 360
T. Itil. CNS Pharmacology and Clinical Therapeutic Effects of Oxiracetam. Clinical Neuropharmacology 9,1986. Pp 70-72.
B. Saletu. Oxiracetam in the Organic Brain Syndrome of Late Life. Neuropsychobiol . 1985. p13, 44-52.
Basel. SMART Drugs: Enhance Cognitive Function with Piracetam. 1999. Vol. 629 p. 31
Nootropic and smart drugs
Nootropil Review Article