Pantocrin Review Article
Pantocrin (extracts from antlers of wild reindeer)is an oral drug that is used to treat various disorders which include aging, decreased sexual drive, osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, low mental alertness, myotrophy and extreme fatigue. The drug contains compounds with antioxidative properties and immunomodulation activity. These compounds are necessary in activating the DNA to repair its damages thereby contributing to the stability of the gene. The side effects of taking this drug are not indicated which means that there are only rare incidents wherein grave effects are observed for this drug. Moreover, Pantocrin is also not reported to have contradicting effects with other drugs.
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Extracts from antlers of wild reindeer have:
a powerful anti-aging action, enhance libido and sexual activity, heighten mental alertness, increase muscle tone, lower recovery time after exertion. Effective remedy to cope with artritis and polyartritis. The drug possesses high antioxidant, anti-stress, and immunomodulation activity. It activates the DNA repairing processes and contributes to gene stability.
Pantocrin is an alcohol extract that is light yellow, or whitish gray in pill form. Pantocrin has been prescribed internally in doses of 25-40 drops, taken one half hour before eating. A typical course of treatment lasts from 2 to 3 weeks, but usually 3 courses are given, with 7-10 day break periods observed between courses. Dosage recommendations vary according to indication and whether or not the product is being used adjunctively.
INDICATIONS FOR USE
An estimated 50 million North Americans suffer from osteoarthritis, a progressive disease of cartilaginous tissue. It involves the loss of proteoglycans and deterioration of cartilage. Both the collagenous matrix and bone degrade. Taking oral glycosaminoglycan-peptides (GAG-p), a therapy termed chondroprotection, may help to prevent both cartilage and bone loss by supplementing the body with proteoglycans.
It has been proposed by researchers that therapies for OA, which include anodynes and antiinflammatory agents, should include glucosamine sulfate (GS), or other GAGs- particularly chondroitin sulfate (CS). In humans, GS is a glucosamine prodrug. Following intravenous, intramuscular and oral administration, GS is distributed into bone and articular cartilage.When ingested orally, up to 90% of GS is absorbed. (Setnikar et al., 1993.)
Chondroitin sulfate has demonstrated slow but gradually increasing reduction in clinical symptoms, lasting up to three months past the end of a controlled study which followed the progress of 146 patients with knee osteoarthritis. Patients were given either diclofenac sodium, an NSAID, or CS. Clinical symptom scores were based on the assessment of the Lesqesne Index, Huskissson visual analog scale of spontaneous pain 4-point ordinal scale for pain on load, and paracetamol consumption. (Morreal etal., 1996.)
The absolute bioavailability of chondroitin sulfate after oral administration is 13.2%. This level of bioavailability in both man and laboratory animals is consistent with other glycosaminoglycans with low sulfation. After intravenous administration of 0.5g CS to healthy volunteers, plasma level of CS decreased, according to a two-compartmental open model. Studies indicate that the metabolic fate of exogenous CS is the same for humans as is the fate of tritiated CS used in experimental animals. Intestinal absorption of both CS and high and low molecular weight polysaccharides derived from its partial depolymerization andlor desulfation has been confirmed in man.Absorption reaches its peak between the 3rd and 4th hour. (Conte et al., 1991.)
Placebo-controlled, double blind studies that demonstrate GS and CS induced benefits to OA, however, have not determined mechanisms of action. Nevertheless, as a source of chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine sulfate, velvet antler is worthy of consideration in OA therapy (Sim and Sunwoo, 1999). A glycosaminoglycan-rich antler product, GAGRA, is available for commercial use relative to the treatment of OA and arthritis (Sim and Sunwoo, 1999).
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS (RA)
In RA, the synovial membrane of multiple joints are inflamed; fibroblasts in the synovium invade and damage both cartilage and bone. In addition to these synovial fibroblasts, T-helper cells may also add to a rheumatoid inflammatory response. T-helper cells are inhibited by interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), but require the administration of antigens in order to enhance the secretion of these T-helper-inhibiting factors while simultaneously causing oral tolerance (Kalden and Sieper, 1998).
As an antigen, collagen type II was used with success in both experimental animal trials and an open study against collagen type II RA (Trentham et al., 1994). Use was based on the fact that orally-administered collagen type II stimulates T-cell production of IL-4, IL- 10, and TGF-beta and precipitates oral tolerance (Kalden and Sieper, 1998). One trial involved 60 RA patients in a double-blind setting; those given chicken type II collagen for 3 months enjoyed significant reductions in joint swelling and pain, and 4 patients claimed complete remission. The patients receiving placebo reported neither symptom reductions nor remission (Trentham et al., 1993). Collagen type II was also of significant note in the treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JVA): after 3 months of therapy, 8 of 10 patients given oral chicken type II collagen had less pain, swelling and morning stiffness, and increased grip strength and ambulatory endurance (Barnett et al., 1996).
Oral tolerance models have been used as a method of creating antigen-specific tolerance in autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and uveitis (Trentham et al., l993). The theory and application of oral tolerance parallels those of allergic desensitization: the allergic patient little by little, through carefully controlled exposure, becomes desensitized to the allergen until the allergy finally abates. As an autoantigen in the etiology of the autoimmune aspect of RA and the primary protein in articular cartilage, type II collagen activates T-cells and also the chronic degeneration of joint cartilage of bones. In reaction to its oral administration, T-cells generated by the immune response contain cy-tokines that can suppress part of the degenerative response that occurs in RA (Kalden and Sieper, 1998).
Velvet antler is a significant source of type II collagen and worthy of serious consideration in the treatment of RA. Future clinical trials conducted to determine the effects of velvet antler on T-cell production and the autoimmune factors of RA will likely support the use of velvet antler in RA.
IMMUNE STIMULANT AND ANTITUMOR EFFECTS
Monocytes in rats given velvet antler extracts reportedly increase (Church, 1999). Monocytes represent 3-7% of leukocytes in blood and are necessary to the immune function of lymph, spleen, bone marrow, and loose connective tissue. Their increase may serve to enhance immune function. In subsequent studies, immune stimulant activity was ascertained. Intraperitoneal injection of pantocrin (0.5-2 mg/kg) enhanced phagocytosis and immunoglobulin levels in mice (Wang, 1996). After analysis of 8 New Zealand red deer extracts, it was determined that extracts prepared from freeze dried antlers that were harvested from the deer at days 60 or 85 had significant immune stimulant activity (Suttie and Haines, 1996). The studies of the 8 extracts used two dosage ranges, the first entailing extracts that were diluted from 500mg/ml to 62mg/ml; the second, extracts ranging from 62mg/ml to 15mg/ml. The investigators found that all extracts in the first set of dilutions carried some immune stimulant capacity, as did those in the second set, even in dilutions as low as 15mg/ml. The extracts used, however, underwent various types of processing and were obtained from various regions of the antler, so their effects were different. The extract designated as Extract E was freeze-dried and from the antler base, and was both immune stimulant and antiinflarnmatory, for example. The study had numerous parameters and statistical factors and investigators were unable to say which extract was the most active, nor were they able to conclude the specific mechanism underlying velvet antler's immune effects. However, it is postulated that due to cytokines in the antlers, the response is humoral, involving antibody stimulation, as opposed to being a cell-mediated response. And because of the potential for side effects pursuant to the use of any drug or supplement, it was significant to determine that even at the lowest dilution, immune enhancement was still observed. (Suttie and Haines, 1996.)
MYOTROPIC AND NEUROTROPIC EFFECTS
Pantocrin was observed in the late 1960s and early 1970s to have a positive effect on the endurance of laboratory animals. Pantocrin extracts increased the working capacity of mice (Brekhman et al., 1969), and these early findings led to experiments designed to study the effects of pantocrin on athletes.
In Russia, tests included one study in which subjects were given either pantocrin or rantarin (reindeer antler); results were compared to the physical exertions of a control groups of athletes. Athletes given pantocrin exhibited 74kg/m dynamic work potential on an exercise bicycle; those given rantocrine, 103kg/m. The control group performed at 15kg/m. (Yudin and Dubryakov, 1974.)
Spurred on by studies like this, Dr. Arkady Koltun, MD, chair of the Medical Committee for the Russian Bodybuilding Federation, included velvet antler in his studies of anabolic agents and their effects on muscle composition, endurance and strength. Early theorists suggested that the elevated performance levels arose from velvet antler increases in muscle restoration
1 month (2-3 bottles). For full recovery 3 courses are needed take 1 month, then 10 days break, another 1 month, then 10 days break and finaly take 1 month.
Caution! Before starting to take this medicine, it is vital that you should consult your doctor! Do not use it on your own initiative, without medical advice.
Pantocrin Review Article