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Selegilin Review Article

 

Selegiline (known as Jumex in Europe) protects against aging of the brain, enhances mental function. A powerful remedy against Parkinson's disease, Selegiline is effective also as an antidepressant and as a protector against Alzheimer's disease. Professor Knoll, who developed Selegiline is convinced of its anti-aging effect and recommends for this a dose 5 mg per week (in two doses of 2.5 mg each).

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Eldepryl, Selegeline, Deprenyl, dopamin, Parkinson's, life extension, selegiline for dogs, selegiline depression, Protein Oxidation, buy eldepryl, eldepryl for depression, eldepryl 5, jumex deprenylSelegiline is an MAO-B inhibitor that is classified as irreversible and selective relatively. It may also be referred to as l-deprenyl. Because this is the best drug available on the market that balances results with affordability, it is one of the most commonly prescribed treatments for Parkinson’s disease. Many studies have confirmed its safety for its primary use and can act as a neuroprotective or antidepressant agent.

MAO or monoamine oxidase is an enzyme which branches into two classifications—type A and B. The main difference between them is the different genetic coding. In addition to these types, MAO can either be reversible or irreversible as well as selective or nonselective in terms of effects. These classifications mean that Selegiline must be carefully prescribed and testing must occur as the intake for the wrong reason or misdiagnosis may lead to neurological side effects. Otherwise, Selegiline is very beneficial in yielding results and can be used for many treatments as proven by several clinical trials.

Since its discovery and introduction on 1960 in Hungary, it has been used for treating mostly neurological conditions as it was actually due to a study regarding the human drive or motivation by Joseph Knoll. Ever since then, it has branched out from Parkinson’s disease treatment for helping in ending smoking for nicotine dependent smokers, treating HIV-associated cognitive impairment, treatment of Schizophrenia symptoms, treatment for major depression, improving AD/HD symptoms with adolescents and even human lifespan extension as well as anti-aging.

Researchers aimed in concluding the levels of safety and effectiveness of Selegiline for easing the process of withdrawal of cigarettes for smokers who have already become dependent to nicotine. They conducted the study among 101 individuals who fit the criteria and will be tested and prescribed with a dosage of 5 mg Selegiline twice per day for 8 weeks while a control group received placebo. The subjects will also have to attend a group counseling therapy for smokers. All who participated could not smoke during that period and was evaluated with the use of a breathalyzer for detecting levels of carbon monoxide and plasma cotinine.

According to the end results, there was some difference of abstinence from cigarette smoking as opposed to those in placebo shown by data taken each specific marker of days. There were no adverse effects that would have been naturally seen such as withdrawal symptoms from quitting smoking without any pharmacological aid. The only reported side effect is dry mouth but other than that, the participants had no harmful health results and were taken well by the body. This was the only 2nd study of its kind and more studies regarding its relation to helping smoking cessation with smokers will be conducted though the differences in abstinence from smoking are not as high as hoped for but definitely showed better rates than those on placebo.

The next clinical trial is the use of Selegiline transderrmal system or STS for HIV brain related symptoms. The researchers were to measure the damage done to the brain through proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition to that, STS will be used for testing MAO-B’s effects on an oxidative stress. They were generally expecting a reduction of levels and it will be measured by detection of protein carbonyl concentration on cerebral spinal fluid.

With this study, there were only 62 participants, each with brain impairment due to HIV and will be involved in testing of the previously cited levels for 24 weeks. The dosage of STS varied according to the group that was randomly determined. The first were to take in 3 mg STS every day and the other was 6 mg every day. Finally, there was a control group put on placebo. Neuropsychological Z and cognitive domain scores were used to keep track of any progress or changes. In the 12th and 24th week, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy testing was conducted while carbonyl concentration on cerebral spinal fluid were taken prior to and at the end of the 24 week duration of treatment.

The results showed that there were higher levels of N-acetyl aspartate/creatine on the 24th week in comparison to the start for the placebo group in comparison to the STS group but the difference was still in a minimal range to certainly conclude oxidative stress decrease was a concrete effect of STS. As for the other part of the study, there was also only a slight difference between placebo and STS groups. The study for STS concluded that only small improvements were shown by using STS. However, this is also a young route for a new use of STS and they will change some of the variables in future studies.

Another suggested use for Selegiline is for reserving negative symptoms of Schizophrenia at specific dosages. This is also a recent clinical trial and one of the first with its purpose. Selegiline will be used in conjunction with Risperidone for treating study group with Schizophrenia in an augmentation therapy. The trail lasted for 8 weeks and involved 40 individuals who were patients in a facility with an active and chronic form of the condition. The group was divided into two. The first will be receiving 6 mg Risperidone each day and 10 mg Selegiline twice a day. The second group will be treated with a combination of 6 mg Risperidone and placebo daily. The effects were later evaluated with PANSS or Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale.

At the end of the trail week, researchers reported that the scores on the PANSS were substantially higher for those who took the adjunct therapy of Selegiline and Risperidone daily as opposed to those who only received Risperidone and placebo daily. The decrease in both was tremendous but the combination of the two drugs was comparatively better. The results were significant this time though a larger study group is required before it is passed on for this medical purpose.

Likewise, EMSAM or another name for Selegiline Transdermal System underwent a clinical trial regarding its benefits of usage for treating individuals on the age of 12 to 17 years with major depression disorder. The participants were to be involved in a 2 year duration of testing and assessment of both single and recurrent psychotic behavior. The patch used contained 6 mg, 9 mg or 12 mg of Selegiline every 24 hours while another group received placebo of the same dosage. The results showed significant decrease of the major depression symptoms such as mood, guilt, retardation, anxiety and other somatic factors. There was also less display of oversleeping, overeating, and suicide tendencies. The participants showed improvement with focus, physical activities, participation and levels of happiness. Therefore, STS was concluded to have a significant positive effect as a treatment for depression and had shown high scores with the tests for HAM-D29 and MADRS.

Eldepryl, Selegeline, Deprenyl, dopamin, Parkinson's, life extension, selegiline for dogs, selegiline depression, Protein Oxidation, buy eldepryl, eldepryl for depression, eldepryl 5, jumex deprenylSeleginine has also been used for treating AD/HD symptoms which is yet another common condition with children. In a study during the year of 1999, a physician in a children’s hospital in Toronto, Canada used Seleginine for a placebo-controlled clinical trial. This was not the only study of its kind though it was the first to use placebo-controlled subjects. In the earlier version of uncontrolled testing, there were already improvements of behavioral symptoms in children who were successfully diagnosed with the condition.

The study was only in a small scale with 10 participants who were 6 to 13 years of age. They were given 5 mg tablets of placebo on the first month two times each day. On the next month, they switched it to Seleginine. After assessing results in paired associate learning, mathematical abilities and Beery shape test, the researchers were able to conclude the improvement of the children with AD/HD in accomplishing tasks as well as performing inside the classroom.

Perhaps an interesting recommendation for a new use of Selegiline is its effects on the human lifespan and aging process. The first study was conducted years ago and has been followed since then with furthermore similar purposes. However, the basics of it still remain the same. As previously stated, Seleginine is used for treating Parkinson’s disease and other neurological conditions. Researchers used this fact and threw in the logic that a youthful mind equals a youthful body.

Eldepryl, Selegeline, Deprenyl, dopamin, Parkinson's, life extension, selegiline for dogs, selegiline depression, Protein Oxidation, buy eldepryl, eldepryl for depression, eldepryl 5, jumex deprenylIn a group study of unspecified total, the participants 10 mg of Selegiline each day. This yielded its neurprotective properties. Due to the fact that 80% of total brain dopamine is located in the basal ganglia, this amount of Selegiline was able to boost the levels by 40 to 70% as the MAO-B also in the basal ganglia is preserved.

In addition to this study, various animal testing were done on hamsters and beagle dogs. The results significantly varied in terms of a longer lifespan for those on Selegiline as opposed to those on placebo. However, sex was a major factor and influenced the results as more female had survived in the longer time frame.

Every year, newer Selegiline studies are being pursued. Very little is still known and proven with this drug as it has remained obscure from Western pharmaceutical companies and unnoticed after its creation but more benefits from it as tested are on their way.

REFERENCES:
1. Weinberger, A.H., Reutenauer, E.L., Jatlow, P.I., O'Malley, S.S., Potenza, M.N., and George, T.P. 2010. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Clinical Trial of Oral Selegiline Hydrochloride for Smoking Cessation in Nicotine Dependent Cigarette Smokers. Drug Alcohol Depend 107(2-3): 188.

2. Schifitto, G., Yiannoutsos, C.T., Ernst, T., Navia, B.A., Nath, A., Sacktor, N., Anderson, C., Marra, C.M, Clifford, D.B. 2009. Selegiline and oxidative stress in HIV-associated cognitive impairment. Neurology 73(23):1975-81.

3. Amiri, A., Noorbala, A.A., Nejatisafa, A.A., Ghoreishi, A., Derakhshan, M.K., Khodaie-Ardakani, M.R., Hajiazim, M., Raznahan, M., and Akhondzadeh, S. 2008. Efficacy of selegiline add on therapy to risperidone in the treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. Hum Psychopharmacology 23(2):79-86.

4. Somerset Pharmaceuticals. 2007. A Phase IV, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Flexible Dose Study of the Safety and Efficacy of EMSAM in Adolescents With Major Depression.

5. Best, B. Can Deprenyl (Selegiline) Extend Human Lifespan?

6. Dean M.D., W. Deprenyl- A Multi-Functional Anti-aging Drug.

7. Pullen, L. DG DISPATCH - AACAP: Deprenyl May Result In AD/HD Symptom Improvements.


 

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