Vinpocetine Review Article
Vinpocetine basically is a anti stroke remedy which is also useful for brain circulation, memory improvement, anticonvulsant, cognition enhancement, neuroprotection and hearing ability. It is available under the brand name of cavinton and intelectol. It works by blocking calcium channel activity as well as voltage gated sodium channel. It has also been found that vinpocetine inhibits the acetylcholine release evoked by excitatory amino acids. Above this it is also reported to inhibit a cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase and it is speculated that this inhibition enhances cyclic GMP levels in the vascular smooth muscle which leads to reduced resistance of cerebral vessels and increase of cerebral flow.
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Vinpocetine is a product which shows its maximum effectiveness when it is administered in common oral therapeutic doses of 15-30 mg per day. Vinpocetine is efficient especially in treating malfunctions of cerebral blood circulation. Such conditions would display symptoms such as worsening of memory, diminished attention and reduced focus, aphasia (difficulties related to speech), apraxia (abnormalities in coordinating motions), aggravation of vision and hearing; dizziness; headaches; dotage; absent-mindedness; psychomotor differences etc.
Being the optimizer of cerebral blood circulation that regulates the tonus of cerebral blood vessels, Vinpocetine has a distinctive positive effect when it is used to treat different types of dystonia. When the product has been administered, it was revealed that patients displayed increased tolerance to mental, physical and emotional overloads, weather sensitivity and improved quality of life.
A beneficial impact of Vinpocetine on the cognitive capabilities is now mediated. These capabilities would be traditionally associated with memory, attention, orientation, perception, fixing information, ability to make decisions. It is assumed that its positive effects are due to its stimulating action on fundamental neurotransmitters that are engaged in transferring information between neurons. It is assumed that it has an effect on broken blood streams and neuron metabolism. This was proved by G. Tesco et al (2007) of the National Institute of Health (Bethezda, MD).
Both short and long-term memory is improved while using Vinpocetine. Vinpocetine helps forming new memory blocks and may be therefore used in learning processes. In three studies of the American Society of Gerontologists that included approximately 120 patients, memory improvement was observed in 75% to 86% of the patients assessed using various generally accepted scales and criteria (Tesco, 2007). H. Olpe et al (1997) demonstrated that Vinpocetine is an effective activator of locus coeruleus neurons that are part in complex cerebral activity processes such as thinking, planning, and integration. Authors would pay attention to much the number of these particular neurons has diminished with age, especially for men. The ability of Vinpocetine to stimulate the functioning of the remaining neurons converts this product into a catalyst of mental abilities.
Vinpocetine increases concentration of neurotransmitters of noradrenalinum, dopaminum, acetylcholinum and serotonin, which are engaged in a process of forming of difficult integrative actions. Influence of dopaminum in a front-line cortex modulates ability of temporary memory. Other dysfunctions avoided with the help of Vinpocetine comprise schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. S. L. Erdo, P. Molnar, V. Lakics et al (1995) while experimenting with neurons on rat cortex concluded that Vinpocetine serves a blocker of natrium channels and provides positive pharmacological and therapeutic effects on treating mental disabilities. Comparing to model products of a nootropic product line (encephabol, pyracetamum) Vinpocetine’s efficiency was further marked by its ability to treat mental dysfunctions of different aetiologies.
Studies of microcirculation characteristics were conducted in 53 patients with different degrees of in circulator encephalopathy of atherosclerotic genesis (Lakics, 1995). Patients who have been taking vasoactive substances including 10 mg of Vinpocetine intravenously for 10 days in a row showed that the diameter of arterioles extended with 17.7% on average during the first hour, the number of functioning capillaries increased with14,3%, and the prevalence of intravascular aggregation diminished.
Following a session of treatment, microcirculation improved only for patients with the initial signs of the decease, but also for patients in its II stage. Application of Vinpocetine was particularly effective in curing the predominance of vestibular violations. The research of M. Hayakawa (1992) on patients with earlier acute dysfunctions of cerebral blood circulation has shown that Vinpocetine therapy results in improving the plastic capabilities of red corpuscles when passing brain capillaries. The resiliency of red corpuscles is changed as well, due to which microcirculation as well as oxygen and glucose supply progress in cerebrum capillaries. It is the reason why Vinpocetine improves largely brain metabolism.
Drop-by-drop introduction of 20 mg of Vinpocetine (one time per day during 10 days, oral absorption of 5 mg, 3 times per day, 65 patients with different stages of incirculator encephalopathy and various degrees of expressed neurological displays showing diffuse brain defeat) indicated positive clinical effect of Vinpocetine on 84% of the patients.
In the group of neurosurgical patients a positive effect of intravenous (10 mg) and long oral (15 mg per day) introduction of Vinpocetine was observed. The effect was documented to be on the electric activity of the cortex and state of the eye retina vessels in the cases of cerebral blood circulation malfunctions or organic genesis. Side effects of using Vinpocetine were never recorded.
N. Miyata et al (1993) studied an effect of Vinpocetine introduction into isolated blood vessels and found that the product preferentially expands blood vessels, so that this effect can serve as a pre-condition for a successful treatment of vascular brain diseases, including strokes. Having been previously treated with Vinpocetine, patients with ischemic stroke note that the effect of the product is more obvious due to an adequate reaction type of central hemodynamics to the product introduction (strengthening of the pulse brain blood filling and reduction of vascular tone). The effect was less expressed in hypertensive and in particular hypotonic types. A study of 40 patients with an acute ischemic stroke and an important hemodynamics malfunction of one or more cerebral arteries showed that the therapeutically effect will increase substantially if applying both cardiac glycosides and Vinpocetine in hypokinetic blood circulation types (Miyata 1993). Most importantly, the probability that a noticeable effect of Vinpocetine introduction after an acute stroke is higher if the product is introduced during the first minutes or hours after a stroke.
B. Kiss and E. Karpati (1996) surveyed mechanisms of cavinton influence and marked that the product preferentially increases cerebral blood circulation and utilization of oxygen without a substantial change in the parameters of an enormous circulation system. This effect is accompanied by improvements in peripheral, cerebral and central blood circulation. Even more positive is the fact that the product at the same time results in moderate reduction of arterial blood tension without influencing the frequency of heart-throbs, as proved by F. Solti et al (1983). The efficiency of the product is shown in variants of cerebral malfunctions conditioned by heart pathology and high arterial pressure. The same authors showed in their xperimental researches that Vinpocetine increases cerebral current of blood without a significant impact on the level of arterial blood pressure.
B. Gulyas, S. Szakall et al (2001) researched the influence of Vinpocetine therapy on glucose metabolism for patients who suffered stroke and came to the conclusion that it results in the quickening of general delivery of glucose over a hematoencephalic brain barrier. Thus, Vinpocetine activates scarce metabolism and increases brain capacity by the improved usage of glucose, oxygen and improved rates of ATP synthesis. In the studies of H. Tohgi et al (1990), elderly patients with senile dementia took 15 mg of Vinpocetine per day for 3 weeks, and the analysis of results demonstrated increased ATP concentration in red corpuscles, and increased oxigenating characteristics of the affine haemoglobin.
Vinpocetine also works as a massive antioxidant and prevents the damage of brain cells. S. Stolc proved that for patients with vascular brain diseases with ischemic damage of neurons a great role is played by the free radicals and their neutralization by antioxidants, including Vinpocetine that minimizes cells death (Stolc, 1999).
The results of double blind study trial of 42 patients with a vascular senile dementia receiving 10 mg of Vinpocetine 3 times per day during 40 days and then 5 mg 3 times per day during 60 days were published in the Journal of American Society of Geriatricians (2008). They clearly show a clinical improvement of disease flow for 56% of the patients which suggests the product’s great efficiency. The estimated effectiveness of medical Vinpocetine therapy is determined by generally accepted psychometric scales and standardized test methods.
Moreover, Vinpocetine has the same positive effects as in model calcium blockers that are successful in treating vascular and degenerative brain diseases of different genesis, alcoholic abstinent syndrome, intoxications by neurotoxins, migraine, convulsive syndrome, depression, and others. Chinese researchers Y. Wei, N. Shi, C. Zhong et al. (2009) studied the influence of Vinpocetine and also found that a product recovers currents of Natrium in cardiac hystiocytes.
Furthermore, it has been described that Vinpocetine has positive results in the amount of serotonin, neurotransmitters, regulating emotions, and mechanisms of pain and sleep. The lowered level of serotonin is associated with depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer’s disease, sleep dysfunctions, loss of appetite etc.
The role of serotonin in the pathology of migraine has been proven by the dynamics of circulatory concentrations of serotonin and its metabolites through the ability of serotonin activators to free migraine-like symptoms. Vinpocetine, increasing the level of serotonin, is useful for preventive measures and treatment of patients with of migraine as a constituent part of general therapy.
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Hayakawa M. Comparative efficacy of vinpocetine, pentoxifylline and nicergoline on red blood cell deformability, 1992
Kiss B, K?rp?ti E. 1996. Mechanism of action of vinpocetine.
Lakics V, Moln?r P, Erd? SL. Protection against veratridine toxicity in rat cortical cultures: relationship to sodium channel blockade, 1995
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Olpe HR, Badran S, Schmutz M. Comparative in vivo and in vitro studies with the potent GABAB receptor antagonist, CGP 56999A, 1997
Solti F, Czak? E, Juvancz P. 1983. The effect of Vinpocetine on impulse formation and impulse conduction of the heart.
Stolc S. Indole derivatives as neuroprotectants, 1999
Tesco G. New advances in Alzheimer's disease: from biology to therapy, 1997
Tohgi H, Sasaki K, Chiba K, Nozaki Y.Effect of vinpocetine on oxygen release of hemoglobin and erythrocyte organic polyphosphate concentrations in patients with vascular dementia of the Binswanger type, 1990
Wei Y., N. Shi N., Zhong C. et al.Negative regulation of MAVS-mediated innate immune response by PSMA7, 2009
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Vinpocetine Review Article